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Introducing Internet of Things IoT Standards and Protocols

Internet of Things Protocols is expanding day by day. With the expansion of the Internet of Things, the need for new IoT Standards and IoT Protocols has increased. Previous IoT Protocols and Standards no longer work. At the same time, IoT experts designed a new layout structure and upgraded Internet of Things Protocols. Human-machine interactions as well as machine-to-machine enters a new field. In this article, the author of Babolifes’s site tries to introduce you to the latest Internet of Things Standards and Protocols. By introducing these standards and protocols you can broaden your view of the IoT.

Introducing IoT protocols

We need components to run the IoT system. These include Gateway, Analytics, Connectivity of Device, Cloud, User Interface, Standards and Protocols, Database, Automation and Development. Together, these components form the IoT system. The IoT protocols we go through in the IoT usually include: Bluetooth, WiFi, ZigBee, MQTT, CoAP, DDS, NFC, Cellular, AMQP, LoRaWAN, RFID, Z-Wave, Sigfox, Thread and en_ocean.

Many IoT protocols have been published by reputable institutions such as IEEE, IETF, ETSI, etc. as IoT standards. For example, the IEEE Institute has provided IEEE802.15.4 Standard, which fully covers low-rate wireless personal area network (LR-WPAN) subjects. The IETF Institute also standardizes its standards with RFCs.

In addition, there are other protocols. But let me make two more points before continuing. The first is about the types of IoT connections and the second is about the types of IoT networks.

Type of IoT connections
In general, IoT architecture has three levels. Devices, Gateways and Data system. The data moving between these three levels is transmitted across four channels. Device-to-device transmission channel, device-to-gateway transmission channel, gateway-to-data system transmission channel, data system-data system transmission channel.

Device-to-device transmission channel

The device-to-device transmission channel transmits data between smart devices. In this case, they share data between themselves. In an industrial system, for example, robots and sensors interact to perform operations.

device-to-gateway transmission channel

The device’s transmission channel to the gateway sends data from the sensors to the gateway. Many of the IoT protocols and standards relate to this channel. The most important issue is the compatibility of IoT protocols with each other in this section. The use of different standards in this area interferes with the transmission channel and increases the cost of implementing IoT.

gateway-to-data system transmission channel

Gateway to data system is one of the most important and challenging part of data transmission. Usually this channel is very long and has a high signal loss. There are many considerations such as communication platform, data security, noise and data destruction, and transmission environment. Many protocols are already standardized in this channel, but additional considerations must be considered when transferring IoT data. The comprehensive protocol for transmission over the TCP network is IP. Here are the challenges such as frame length, transmission timing, power consumption and data routing.

data system-data system transmission channel

The transmission channel between the data system transmits data between data centers and clouds. Easy channel development, capacity, reliability and availability are important.


January 2020


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